Engineering Design Centre
Mr K.M. Wallace
Dr A.J. Organ
Mr A.L. Johnson
Dr P.J. Clarkson
Since 1991 second-year students from the Department have participated in the annual International Design Contest organised by NHK Television in Japan. This year the contest was held in Darmstadt with financial support provided by the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) in Germany. Six students from the Department joined students from Germany, Japan, America, Brazil and South Korea. As one of the main aims of the contest is to encourage international collaboration, the students were divided into mixed international teams of three, ensuring that no two members in a team spoke the same native language. The teams had less than two weeks to design and build machines to complete a challenging task. The contest generates valuable international links for the Department in the field of engineering design education(C63).
The three Royal Academy of Engineering Visiting Professors in the Principles of Engineering Design, Professors Roy Farmer, Andrew Palmer and Ivan Yates, continued to contribute to the design teaching and design research in the Department.
In a completely new guided-design project for Pt IIA, students successfully designed their individual "Low T" (low temperature difference) engines. The type is capable of operation from the heat of a cup of tea, and has the merit of being capable of fabrication from unsophisticated materials.
A new final year module consisting of previously un-taught and un-published material has been mounted under the heading Design Case Studies.
Final year project work integrated with IIA guided design courses has led to the construction of a vehicle to contest the Shell Mileage Marathon. Our entry for the July 1996 event suffered problems with engine starting, but was awarded high marks for technical content.
Mr K.M. Wallace
Prof. D.E. Newland
Prof. M.F. Ashby
The Engineering Design Centre (EDC), supported by a grant from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), entered its sixth year. The goals of the EDC are to develop, validate and disseminate fundamental design methods for the design of mechanical systems. The research programme is split into four main themes: Functional Modelling, Configuration Optimisation, Materials Selection, and Process Integration. The design methods and tools developed are tested on design applications in collaboration with industrial partners in the areas of: Aerospace Systems; Heavy Duty Vehicles; Rehabilitation and Medical Devices; and Special Projects, the latter including projects on micro-mechanisms, database systems, and environmentally-sustainable design. The value of the EDC's current 4-year EPSRC grant for 1995-98 is £2 million and the EDC was successfully reviewed in May 1996 by the EPSRC. The collaborative project between Panasonic and RACE (Research into Artefacts, Centre for Engineering) at the University of Tokyo has continued and a successful joint workshop was held in Tokyo in January 1996. The decision was taken to extend the collaboration for a further two years from April 1996. A successful short course on Systematic Engineering Design and Failure Analysis, organised by the Cambridge Programme for Industry, was given by members of the EDC and Allen-Crapper Associates. There have been research student exchanges with the Technical University of Darmstadt(C9,C10,C11,C14,C15,C16,C49,C50,C65).
Mr K.M. Wallace
Mr A.L. Johnson
Dr T.P. Bligh
Dr A. Chakrabarti
The objective of this theme is to develop a methodology for generating conceptual and embodiment designs using functional modelling theory. Research into functional synthesis, embodiment generation and kinematic analysis, and their integration, has continued and substantial progress has been made on temporal reasoning. A preliminary method for automatically synthesising solution principles has also been developed(C20,C21,C22,C23,C24,C25,C26,C27).
A prototype Integrated Functional Modelling (IFM) system, aimed at building a knowledge-based environment to implement and support the above theories, has been developed and tested. The knowledge base and an AI-based architecture of the IFM have been developed in a LISP environment. Three key support systems are also being developed and integrated: an enhanced version of a functional synthesiser; a symbolic constraint manager; and a kinematic analysis package that performs 3-D kinematic analysis. The IFM architecture will form the core of a demonstrator for exploring the potential for commercial exploitation(C27,C52,C54,C55,C56,C57,C58).
Dr P.J. Clarkson
Dr D. Cebon
Dr S.C. Burgess
Dr D.F. Moore
Prof. A.R. Farmer
This theme, which provides direct links with many of the EDC's industrial partners, is concerned with the development of methods and tools for design optimisation. The research is divided broadly into four areas: Design Optimisation, Design for X, Design Guidelines and Supporting Projects(C45).
Design optimisation research included: collaboration with the Vehicle Dynamics Consortium to design a prototype semi-active damper for use on heavy duty vehicles and to develop a new data logger for in-service data collection(C39,C40), and the completion of a case study with Domino to develop a representation of the physical laws which apply to continuous inkjet printers(C37).
"Design for X" research achievements include: the definition of a Design for Low-volume Low-cost method in conjunction with Spyder Engineering and Ford Power Products; the development of a Design for Validation method which is to be validated with a number of healthcare and design organisations(C29); and the development of a new approach to Design for Usability with the design of human machine interfaces for interactive robotic systems(C36).
A second generation guidelines database, the Cambridge Engineering Design Guidelines (CEGD) has been implemented and is being field-tested at several design consultancies(C28,C46,C47). A design support system, using Knowledge Based Systems technology, has been developed with Westland Helicopters and is being applied to their rotor blade design process(C35).
An efficient production process has been identified with Panasonic for fabricating the EDC micro-accelerometer using standard IC industry fabrication processes(C38,C42,C43). The differences between micro and conventional design have been investigated using protocol studies based in companies and universities both in the UK and Japan(C18,C41,H51).
A further prototype Mobile Arm Support, MAS 3, providing the user with greater reach and options for either left or right-handed operation, has been assembled and successfully field tested. The next stage is to build a pre-production batch of machines so that the final design can be evaluated by both users and the prospective manufacturing organisation. Many of the target users are supported by the Muscular Dystrophy Group who are enthusiastic about the project and willing to part finance the programme of field trials. The EDC's methods, including Design for Reliability(C64), have been tested during the design of the MAS.
Prof. M.F. Ashby
Dr D. Cebon
The Cambridge Materials Selector (CMS 2.0) is now an established design tool, widely used in Europe, North America and Asia. Database development has continued. Comprehensive databases for ferrous alloys and engineering foams were released in 1995; similar databases for non-ferrous alloys, ceramics and woods will be released early in 1997, completing the database structure for CMS 2.0. A completely new selection tool, CMS 3.0, will be available in 1997, with greatly enhanced functionality(C2,C4,C6,C7,C13,C19,C37,C60).
The optimal design of load-bearing structures requires the selection of both material and section-shape. A methodology has been developed for selecting, from among available materials and shapes, those best suited to meet given design specifications. These ideas have been implemented into Cambridge Materials Selector to form a structural section selector which accesses a database of 1900 sections (I-section circular hollow, rectangular hollows, tees, angles and channels) made from steel, aluminium, glass polymer composite and wood. The work is ongoing and the methods are being refined for commercialisation(C67,C68).
A prototype process selector has been implemented. It contains data for the physical and economic characteristics of 105 manufacturing processes (casting, deformation, powder, etc.). It allows the selection of candidate processes to manufacture a given component from a given material(C32,C33,C34).
Techniques are under development for selecting materials to meet specified design criteria while minimising the environmental impact (or "eco-burden") associated with production and use. A database containing the properties of materials - including those relevant to their environmental impact - is being assembled. It will be used to suggest how redesign can reduce the eco-burden of engineering products(C51,C69,C80).
Mr K.M. Wallace
Dr L.S. Blessing
Dr N.R. Ball
Dr N.K. Upton (Sir Frederick Page Research Fellow)
This project has two objectives: (a) to develop an integrated and flexible software-based design environment which will support mechanical designers and design teams; and (b) to evaluate the design approach and tools being developed within the EDC.
A prototype Common Product Data Model (CPDM) supporting both the process and the product has been developed and implemented on an object-oriented database management system. The model is based on a dynamically layered framework that supports the construction of the product model from different viewpoints. A prototype version of the CPDM has been delivered to Rolls-Royce plc for evaluation(C12,C44).
The Process-based Support System (PROSUS) model has been evaluated in design experiments and used in the design process for the Mobile Arm Support. A prototype system of PROSUS is being implemented to provide active support to design teams during all stages of the design process. The initial system will enable design events to be captured against the CPDM and suggest appropriate design tools. Collaboration on process and product modelling is starting with design research groups at the Technical University Denmark and the Otto-von-Guericke University in Magdeburg, Germany.
A prescribed systematic design process and tools developed in the EDC have been applied to a problem identified by industry, namely the design of a Flight Refuelling Probe. The policy, task clarification and conceptual design stages have been completed. EDC tools have been used for requirements capture, kinematic analysis and materials selection.
A method is being developed to search large databases using associative memory to allow designers to inspect knowledge available on closely related previous designs(C28).
Empirical studies of the design information usage by three groups within Rolls-Royce plc have been completed and the analysis is providing insights into how designers access relevant design information and experience. This research is leading to a specification for a system to capture, store, maintain and deliver design knowledge. The decision-making process has been analysed in several design experiments. This has resulted in a theoretical decision support framework to capture, store and present the appropriate decision-making information to designers(C30,C31).
Another project is aimed at understanding how computer-based engineering tools add value to a business. Relevant issues and data have been gathered using a conceptual framework for linking tools to business critical success factors. The research indicates that companies could gain by directing attention at the process which leads to tool investment decisions, and by improving the content and quality of information available to decision-makers. The project has a strong industrial orientation. Detailed case studies have been conducted with MBM Technology, British Aerospace and Marshall Aerospace. Further data has been gathered during visits to seven other aerospace companies.
In conjunction with the Society of British Aerospace Companies, a survey has been conducted of 52 modelling tools at 10 firms. Analysis established 10 issues that affect satisfaction with a tool(C61).
Research methods described in the design research literature are being studied and compared with those used in the EDC to develop a generic design research methodology. The framework has been used for the planning of several PhD research projects both at the EDC and at the Technical University Denmark.
C1. AITCHISON, J.M., UPTON, N.K. Solution of constrained nonlinear equations in modelling the release of liquefied gases, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 67, (1), 1-14 (1996).
C2. ASHBY, M.F. Checks and estimates for material properties. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/CDC/TR.32 (January 1996).
C3. ASHBY, M.F. Materials, bicycles and design. The 1994 Edward DeMille Campbell memorial lecture. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 26A, 3057-3064 (December 1995).
C4. ASHBY, M.F. Materials selection: multiple constraints and compound objectives. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.38 (April 1996).
C5. ASHBY, M.F. Modelling of materials problems. Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design, 3, 95-99 (1996).
C6. ASHBY, M.F., CEBON, D. Case Studies in Materials Selection (Granta Design Ltd, Cambridge, 1996).
C7. ASHBY, M.F., CEBON, D. Materials selection for aerospace design. Proceedings, Aerotech 95 (IMechE/IEE/RAeS/SBAC Conference) Birmingham (October 1995).
C8. ASHBY, M.F., CEBON, D., SHIBAIKE, N. Micromechanisms: materials and processes. Proceedings, 1st International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1995).
C9. BALL, N. Application of a neural network based classifier system to AGV obstacle avoidance. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 41, (3-4), 285-296 (1996).
C10. BALL, N.R. Representation of obstacles in a neural network bases classifier system. Proceedings, European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks (ESANN96), Bruges, Belgium; Edited by D. Facto, 155-160 (April 1996).
C11. BALL, N.R. Supporting the EDC product model using QuickTrieve. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.22 (June 1996).
C12. BALL, N.R., MURDOCH, T.N.S., WALLACE, K.M. A framework for design object evolution. Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design, AID 96, Stanford, CA (June 1996); Edited by J.S. Gero, F. Sudweeks, 77-96 (Kluwer Academic, 1996).
C13. BASSETTI, D., BRECHET, Y., ASHBY, M.F. Estimates for material properties: the method multiple correlations. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.33 (January 1996).
C14. BURGESS, S.C. The design and analysis of a novel rotary damping mechanism. Proceedings, 7th International Machine Design and Production Conference, Ankara, Turkey, 905-914 (September 1996).
C15. BURGESS, S.C. The design optimisation of poles for pole vaulting. Proceedings, 1st International Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Sheffield, 83-90 (July 1996).
C16. BURGESS, S.C. The optimisation of performance of a new damping mechanism. Proceedings, Fourth Symposium on Design, Hrvatska, Croatia, 11-18 (May 1996).
C17. BURGESS, S.C., ASHBY, M.F., WEAVER, P.M., SHIBAIKE, N. Green design case study - fridge shelf. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C18. BURGESS, S.C., MOORE, D.F., NEWLAND, D.E., KLAUBERT, H.L. A study of configuration optimisation in micro-systems. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/CEDC/TR.35 (March 1996).
C19. CEBON, D., ASHBY, M.F. Database User's Manuals for CMS 2.0: Foams v1.0 (1996); Ferrous Metals v1.0 (1996) (Granta Design Ltd., Cambridge, 1994-1996).
C20. CHAKRABARTI, A. FuncSION: a software for synthesis of mechanical designs. Engineering Computing Newsletter, issue 59, 1-2 (1995).
C21. CHAKRABARTI, A., BLESSING, L.T.M. Representing functionality in design, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing (AIEDAM), (Special issue) 10, (4), 251-253 (1996).
C22. CHAKRABARTI, A., BLIGH, T.P. An approach to functional synthesis of mechanical design concepts: theory, application and emerging research issues, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing (AIEDAM), (Special Issue), 10, (4), 313-332 (1996).
C23. CHAKRABARTI, A., BLIGH, T.P. Functional synthesis of solution-concepts in mechanical conceptual design. Part II: synthesis. International Journal for Research in Engineering Design, 8, (1), 52-62 (1996).
C24. CHAKRABARTI, A., BLIGH, T.P. Functional synthesis of solution-concepts in mechanical conceptual design. Part III: spatial configuration. International Journal for Research in Engineering Design, 8, (2), 116-124 (1996).
C25. CHAKRABARTI, A., BLIGH, T.P. Generation and exploration of conceptual design solutions on computers. Proceedings, International Conference on Advances of Mechanical Engineering, Bangalore, India (December 1995).
C26. CHAKRABARTI, A., JOHNSON, A.L. An approach to automated synthesis of solution principles for transducer designs. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C27. CHAKRABARTI, A., TANG, M.X. Generating conceptual solutions on FuncSION: evolution of a functional synthesiser. Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design, AID'96, Stanford, CA, (June 1996); Edited by J.S. Gero, F. Sudweeks, 603-622 (Kluwer Academic, 1996).
C28. CHARLTON, C.T., BALL, N.R. Case retrieval using associative networks. Proceedings, Adaptive Computing in Engineering Design and Control (ACEDC'96), Plymouth, 1, 71-78 (March 1996).
C29. CLARKSON, P.J. Design for validation.
Management Forum on the Role, Importance and Regulatory Requirements of
Design of Medical Devices, London (June 1996).
C30. DWARAKANATH, S., BLESSING, L.T.M. Ingredients of the design process: a comparison between group and individual work. Analysing Design Activity; Edited by K. Dorst, H. Christiaans, et al, 93-116 (Wiley, 1996).
C31. DWARAKANATH, S., BLESSING, L.T.M., WALLACE, K.M. Descriptive studies: starting point for research in engineering design. Proceedings, International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Bangalore, India, 341-361 (December 1995).
C32. ESAWI, A.M.K., ASHBY, M.F. Cost estimation techniques for the early stages of design. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.31 (November 1995).
C33. ESAWI, A.M.K., ASHBY, M.F. Selection of manufacturing processes. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.30 (October 1995).
C34. ESAWI, A.M.K., ASHBY, M.F. Systematic process selection in mechanical design. Proceedings, ASME International Design for Manufacturing Conference, Irvine, CA (August 1996).
C35. HAMILTON, J., CLARKSON, P.J., BURGESS, S.C., NEWLAND, D.E. The development of a knowledge based system to aid helicopter rotor blade design. Proceedings, 20th International Council of Aeronautical Sciences Congress, Sorrento, Italy, 619-630 (September 1996).
C36. KEATES, S., PERRICOS, C. Gesture as a means of computer access. Communication Matters, 10, (1), 17-19 (1996).
C37. KHANG, J.H.L., BURGESS, S.C., WALLACE, K.M. Product design using parameter-tree analysis. Proceedings, 4th Symposium on Design, Hrvatska, Croatia, 66-73 (May 1996).
C38. KIRIYAMA, T., BURGESS, S.C., MOORE, D.F., SHIBAIKE, N. A study of a design process of a micro-accelerometer. Proceedings, RACE (Research into Artifacts Centre for Engineering) International Symposium, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C39. KITCHING, K.J. Heavy vehicle suspension design. SAE T0PTEC Workshop on Advanced Suspensions, Warrendale, PA; Edited by N. Petek (June 1996).
C40. KITCHING, K.J., COLE, D.J., CEBON, D. The development of a heavy vehicle semi-active damper. Proceedings, AVEC'96, International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Aachen, Germany (June 1996); Edited by H. Wallentowitz, 1, 153-162 (KartOgraphie und Druck, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 1996).
C41. KLAUBERT, H. A study of a design process for micromechanisms. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C42. MOORE, D.F., BURGESS, S.C., CHIANG, H.-S., KLAUBERT, H., SHIBAIKE, N., KIRIYAMA, T. Micromachining and focused ion beam etching of Si for accelerometers. Proceedings, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology Conference, Austin, TX, 253-258. International Society for Optical Engineering, Proceedings SPIE 2639 (October 1995).
C43. MOORE, D.F., BURGESS, S.C., DANIEL, J., KLAUBERT, H., CLARKSON, P.J., SHIBAIKE, N., KIRIYAMA, T. Development status of tunnel-current micro accelerometer. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C44. MURDOCH, T.N.S., BALL, N.R. Machine learning in configuration design. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing (AIEDAM), 10, 101-113 (1996).
C45. MURDOCH, T.N.S., WALLACE, K.M. Design for technical merit. Design for X: Concurrent Engineering Imperatives; Edited by G.Q. Huang, 1, 463-484 (Chapman and Hall, 1996).
C46. NOWACK, M.L., EDWARDS, K.L. An approach for supporting manufacturability consideration in the early stages of design. Proceedings, ASME National Design Engineering Conference, Chicago, IL, 1, 15-22 (March 1996) (Reed Exhibition Companies, Norwalk, Connecticut, 1996).
C47. NOWACK, M.L., EDWARDS, K.L. Supporting manufacturability considerations in the early stages of composite product design. Proceedings, 7th European Conference on Composite Materials, London, 2, 323-328 (May 1996) (Institute of Materials, 1996).
C48. ORGAN, A.J. The hot-air engine - a very un-scale model. Hot Air Engine Symposium, London (January 1996).
C49. RODGERS, P.A., HUXOR, A. KBS design tools: an emerging paradigm. Proceedings, 13th Irish Manufacturing Conference (IMC-13), Limerick, Ireland; Edited by M.T. Hillery, 805-814 (September 1996).
C50. RODGERS, P.A., HUXOR, A. Knowledge-based design systems as texts: an emerging view. Proceedings, International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (CADEX 96), Hagenberg, Austria, (September 1996); Edited by H.P. Santo, 162-170 (IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996).
C51. SHIBAIKE, N. Green design methodology. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C52. TANG, M.X. An AI-based architecture for concurrency management in engineering design. Proceedings, ASME National Engineering Conference, Chicago, IL, ASME paper 96-DE-1 (March, 1996).
C53. TANG, M.X. Developing collaborative CAD systems using AI techniques. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.40 (September 1996).
C54. TANG, M.X. Goldwork III, a knowledge-based system development tool, Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.36 (March 1996).
C55. TANG, M.X. An integrated application of inductive learning techniques in intelligent CAD systems. Proceedings, Artificial Intelligent Design 96 Workshop on Machine Learning in Design, Stanford, CA (June 1996).
C56. TANG, M.X. Integration of a design concept learning scheme within a knowledge-based design support system. Proceedings, ASCE Congress on Computing for Civil Engineering, Anaheim, CA (June 1996).
C57. TANG, M.X. Integration of machine learning techniques in intelligent CAD systems. Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design, AID96, Stanford, CA (June 1996); Edited by J.S. Gero, F. Sudweeks (Kluwer Academic, 1996).
C58. TANG, M.X. A knowledge-based system for integrated design. Proceedings, 7th International Machine Design and Production Conference, Ankara, Turkey (September 1996).
C59. THORNTON, A.C., JOHNSON, A.L. CADET: a software support tool for constraint processes in embodiment design. Research in Engineering Design, 8, (1), 1-13 (1996).
C60. THORNTON, M.H., ASHBY, M.F. CMS Ferrous Metals Database, (Granta Design Ltd, Cambridge, 1996).
C61. UPTON, N.K. Modelling in the UK aerospace industry. Cambridge University Engineering Department Report CUED/CEDC/TR.34 (January 1996).
C62. UPTON, N.K. Sensor management systems. Proceedings, Aerotech 95 (IMechE/IEE/RAeS/SBAC Conference), Birmingham (October 1995).
C63. WALLACE, K.M. (Editor), Engineering Design - a Systematic Approach, by G. Pahl, W. Beitz; translated from 3rd German edition by K.M. Wallace, L.T.M. Blessing, F. Bauert. 2nd revised edition, ISBN 3 540 19917 9 (Springer-Verlag, London, 1996).
C64. WALLACE, K.M., STEPHENSON, J. Design for reliability. In: Design for X: Concurrent Engineering Imperatives; Edited by G.Q. Huang, 1, 245-267 (Chapman and Hall, 1996).
C65. WARWICK, K., BALL, N.R. Self-organising neural networks for adaptive control. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 15, 153-163 (1996).
C66. WATERMAN, N., ASHBY, M.F. The Materials Selector, 2nd edition (Chapman and Hall, 1996).
C67. WEAVER, P.M., ASHBY, M.F. Material limits for shape efficiency. Cambridge University Engineering Departmen Report CUED/C-EDC/TR.39 (June 1996).
C68. WEAVER, P.M., ASHBY, M.F. The optimal selection of material and section-shape. Journal of Engineering Design, 7, (2), 129-150 (1996).
C69. WEAVER, P.M., ASHBY, M.F., BURGESS, S.C., SHIBAIKE, N. Green design case study - fridge insulation. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C70. WEAVER, P.M., ASHBY, M.F., BURGESS, S.C., SHIBAIKE, N. Selection of materials to reduce environmental impact: a case study on refrigerator insulation. Journal of Materials and Design, 17, (1), 11-17 (1996).
C71. WEAVER, P.M., ASHBY, M.F., BURGESS, S.C., SHIBAIKE, N. Selection of materials to reduce environmental impact. Refrigerator insulation, a case study. 2nd International Workshop on Collaborative Design, Tokyo, Japan (January 1996).
C72. WEAVER, P.M., BURGESS, S.C. The design of composite vaulting poles. Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Composites Engineering (ICCE 3), New Orleans, LA; Edited by D. Hui, 913-914 (June 1996).
C73. WEGST, U.G.K., ASHBY, M.F. Alternative woods for violin bows. Newsletter of the British Violin Making Association, (5), 7-14 (September 1996).
C74. WEGST, U.G.K., ASHBY, M.F. Materials selection for sports equipment. Proceedings, 1st International Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Sheffield, (July 1996); Edited by S. Haake, 1, 175-184 (Balkema, 1996).