ENGINEERING TRIPOS PART IIA - 2012/2013
Thermodynamics and Power Generation
1. Thermodynamics: 2 lectures/week, weeks 1-4, Michaelmas
term. (Prof JB Young)
Power Generation: 2 lectures/week, weeks 5-8, Michaelmas
term. (Dr G Pullan)
This module focuses on electricity power generation and the underlying thermodynamic theory. Topics covered will include power generation by gas, steam and combined cycles, and direct electrochemical conversion by fuel cells. Some advanced cycle concepts will be introduced and the possibility of carbon dioxide capture and storage will also be discussed. The first 8 lectures will cover some basic thermodynamic theory and fuel cells, and the second 8 will concentrate on current methods of power generation and some future possibilities. The thermodynamics of 3A5 is relevant to module 4A13 on combustion theory.
1. Thermodynamics (8L)
- Thermodynamic availability, lost work and entropy production, exergy analysis, application to power cycles.
- Gibbs and Helmholtz functions, standard property changes in chemical reactions, overall and rational efficiencies, electrochemical conversion, fuel cells (theory and practice).
- Equilibrium criteria, phase equilibrium, chemical potential, Clapeyron equation, equations of state, ideal gas mixtures, imperfect gases, van der Waals equation.
- Gibbs equation, chemical equilibrium, chemical potential of ideal gas, equilibrium constant, gas phase reactions, van’t Hoff equation.
2. Power Generation (8L)
- Overview of current and future electricity power generation.
- Gas turbines with intercooling, reheat and recuperation. Turbine blade cooling.
- Steam cycles with feed heating and reheat. The combustion process and boiler efficiency.Steam cycles for nuclear power.
- Combined gas-steam cycles.
- Advanced cycles and carbon dioxide sequestration.
On completion of the 8 Thermodynamics lectures, students should:
- Understand the principles of exergy analysis, be able to calculate the lost work terms of power cycle components, know the importance of the Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, the uses of standard property changes in chemical reactions, and the idea of rational efficiency..
- Understand the principles of electrochemical energy conversion, be aware of different types of fuel cell technology, be able to calculate the Gibbs and Nernst potentials, and have a basic knowledge of fuel cell losses.
- Understand the principles of phase equilibrium, the role of the chemical potential, and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
- Understand equation of state theory including characteristic form, Maxwell’s relations, ideal gases, ideal gas mixtures, imperfect gases, van der Waals form, and law of corresponding states.
- Understand chemical equilibrium theory and the use of the equilbrium constant, be able to perform calculations for gas mixtures with one or two independent reactions, and be able to apply van’t Hoff’s equation.
On completion of the 8 Power Generation lectures, students should be able to:
- Understand the rôle of steam and gas turbine cycles in electricity power generation and be conversant with likely future developments.
- Be able to evaluate the performance of gas turbine plants including reheat,intercooling and recuperation.
- Be able to evaluate the performance of steam power plants including reheat and feedheating.
- Be able to evaluate the performance of combined cycles.
- Understand the issues involved in the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled power plants.
Please see the Booklist for Part IIA Courses for references for this module.
Last updated: June 2012